Yeast - Reference Chromosome IV

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Nature 387 (suppl.), 75-78 (1997)

 

The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from chromosome IV

 

C. Jacq1, J. Alt-Mörbe2, B. Andre3, W. Arnold4, A. Bahr5, J. P. G. Ballesta6, M. Bargues7, L. Baron8, A. Becker4, N. Biteau8, H. Blöcker9, C. Blugeon1, J. Boskovic6, P. Brandt9, M. Brückner10, M. J. Buitrago11, F. Coster12, T. Delaveau1, F. del Rey11, B. Dujon13, L.. G. Eide14, J.M. Garcia-Cantalejo6, A. Goffeau12,A. Gomez-Peris7, C. Granotier8, V. Hanemann15, T. Hankeln5, J.D. Hoheisel16, W. Jaeger9, A. Jimenez6, J.-L. Jonniaux12, C. Krämer5, H. Kuester4, P. Laamanen17, Y. Legros8, E. Louis18, S. Möller-Rieker5, A. Monnet8, M. Moro19, S. Müller-Auer10, B. Nussbaumer4, N. Paricio7, L. Paulin17, J. Perea1, M. Perez-Alonso7, J. E. Perez-Ortin7, T. M. Pohl20, H. Prydz14, B. Purnelle12, S. W. Rasmussen21, M. Remacha6, J. L. Revuelta11, M. Rieger10, D. Salom7, H. P. Saluz15, J. E. Saiz11, A.-M. Saren17, M. Schäfer10, M. Scharfe22, E. R. Schmidt5, C. Schneider19, P. Scholler16, S. Schwarz16, L.A. Urrestarazu3, P. Verhasselt23, S. Vissers3, M. Voet23, G. Volckaert23, G. Wagner10, R. Wambutt22, E. Wedler22, H. Wedler22, S. Wölfl15,

D. E. Harris24, S. Bowman24, D. Brown24, C. M. Churcher24, R. Connor24, K. Dedman24, S. Gentles24, N. Hamlyn24, S. Hunt24, L. Jones24, S. McDonald24, L. Murphy24, D. Niblett24, C. Odell24, K. Oliver24, M. A. Rajandream24, C. Richards24, L. Shore24, S. V. Walsh24, B. G. Barrell24,

F. S. Dietrich25, J. Mulligan25, E. Allen25, R. Araujo25, E. Aviles25, A. Berno25, J. Carpenter25, E. Chen25, J. M. Cherry25, E. Chung25, M. Duncan25, S. Hunicke-Smith25, R. Hyman25, C. Komp25, D. Lashkari25, H. Lew25, D. Lin25, D. Mosedale25, K. Nakahara25, A. Namath25, P. Oefner25, C. Oh25, F. X. Petel25, D. Roberts25, S. Schramm25, M. Schroeder25, T. Shogren25, N. Shroff25, A. Winant25, M. Yelton25, D. Botstein25, R. W. Davis25,

M. Johnston26, S. Andrews26, R. Brinkman26, J. Cooper26, H. Ding26, Z. Du26, A. Favello26, L. Fulton26, S. Gattung26, T. Greco26, K. Hallsworth26, J. Hawkins26, L. Hillier26, M. Jier26, D. Johnson26, L. Johnston26, J. Kirsten26, T. Kucaba26, Y. Langston26, P. Latreille26, T. Le26, E. Mardis26, S. Menezes26, N. Miller26, M. Nhan26, A. Pauley26, D. Peluso26, L. Rifken26, L. Riles26, A. Taich26,E. Trevaskis26, D. Vignati26, L. Wilcox26, P. Wohldman26, M. Vaudin26, R. Wilson26, R. Waterston26,

K. Albermann27, J. Hani27, K. Heumann27, K. Kleine27, H. W. Mewes27, A. Zollner27 & P. Zaccaria27

 

1 Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire, URA 1302 du CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 46 rue d’Ulm 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France

2 Labor für DNA-Analytik, Wipperstrasse 2, 79100 Freiburg, Germany 3Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et de Génétique des Levures, Campus Plaine CP244, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium

4 Lehrstuhl für Genetik, Fakultät für Biologie, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld, Germany

5 Institut für Molekulargenetik, Universität Mainz, Becherweg 32, D-55099 Mainz, Germany

6 Centro de Biologia Molecular, CSIC and UAM, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain

7 Departemento de Bioquimica y Biologia molecular, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot-Valencia, Spain;

8 Pharmacia Biotech, Parc technologique, rue R. Razel, 91898 Orsay Cedex, France

9 GB-Genome Analysis, Mascheroder Weg 1, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany

10 Biotechnologische und Molekularbiologische Forschung, Angelhofweg 39, 69259 Wilhelmsfeld, Germany

11 Departemento de Microbiologia y Genetica, Universidad de Salamanca, Avenida del Campo Charro E-37007, Salamanca, Spain

12 Unité de Biochimie Physiologique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud, 2/20, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

13 Unité de Génétique Moléculaire des Levures, Département de Biologie Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, F-75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

14 The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, Ganstadalleen 21, 0371 Oslo, Norway

15 Hans-Knöll-Institut, Beutenbergstrasse 11, D-07745, Jena, Germany

16 Molecular Genetic Genome Analysis, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69210 Heidelberg, Germany

17 DNA Syntheses and Sequencing Laboratory, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O Box 56, Viikinkaari 9, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland

18 Department of Yeast Genetics, Institute of Molecular Medecine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK

19 L.N.C.I.B., Area Science Park, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste, Italy

20 GATC GmbH, Fritz-Arnold-Strasse 23, 78467 Konstanz, Germany

21 Carlsberg Laboratory, Gamle Carlsberg Vej 10, DK-2500 Copenhagen Valby, Denmark

22 AGON GmbH, Glienicker Weg 185, D-12489 Berlin, Germany

23 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratory of Gene Technology, Willem de Croylaan, 42, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium

24 The Sanger Centre, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK

25 Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Beckman Center, Stanford CA 94305-5307, USA

26 Department of Genetics Box 8232, Washington University Medical School, 4566 Scott Avenue, St Louis Missouri 63110, USA

27 Martinsrieder Institut für Protein Sequenzen, Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie, D-82152 Martinsried bei München, Germany.

 

The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV has been determined. Apart from chromosome XII, which contains the 1-2 Mb rDNA cluster, chromosome IV is the longest S. cerevisiae chromosome. It was split into three parts which were sequenced by a consortium from the European Community, the Sanger Centre and groups from St Louis and Stanford in the United States. The sequence of 1,531,974 base pairs contains 796 predicted or known genes, 315 (39.7%) of which have been previously identified. Of the 478 new genes, 225 (28.3%) are homologous to previously identified genes and 253 (32%) have unknown functions or correspond to spurious open reading frames (ORFs). On average there is one gene approximately every two kilobases. Superimposed on alternating regional variations in G+C composition, there is a large central domain with a lower G+C content that contains all the Ty elements and most of the tRNA genes. Chromosome IV shares with chromosomes II, V, XII, XIII and XV some long clustered duplications which partly explain its origin.

 



EMBL accession numbers: Z74051-Z74296, Z48008, Z74305-Z74385, Z49770, Z47814, Z68196, Z54075, Z49812, Z49209, Z46796, Z50111, Z47746, Z48758, Z48179, Z54139, Z50046, Z47813, Z46727, Z48784, Z68194, Z68195, Z48612, Z49701, Z68329, Z70202, Z68290, U51030, U51031, U28374, U32517, U51032, U28372, U28373, U32274, U33050, U33057, Z74389