Yeast - Reference Chromosome X


EMBO J vol.15 no.9 pp.2031-2049, (1996)

Complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome X.

F. Galibert [1], D. Alexandraki [2], A. Baur [3], E. Boles [3], N. Chalwatzis [3], J-C. Chuat [1], F. Coster [4], C. Cziepluch [12], M. De Haan [5], H. Domdey [6], P. Durand [7], K. D. Entian [8], M. Gatius [1], A. Goffeau [4], L. A. Grivell [5], A. Hennemann [8], C. J . Herbert [9], K. Heumann [14], F. Hilger [7], C. P. Hollenberg [10], M-E. Huang [1], C. Jacq [11], J-C. Jauniaux [12], C. Katsoulou [2], L. Kirchrath [10], K. Kleine [14], E. Kordes [12], P. Koetter [8], S. Liebl [14], E.J. Louis [13], V. Manus [1], H. W. Mewes [14], T. Miosga [3], B. Obermaier [6]*, J. Perea [11], T. Pohl [15], D. Portetelle [7], A. Pujol [12], B. Purnelle [4], M. Ramezani Rad [10], S. W. Rasmussen [16], M. Rose [8], R. Rossau [17], I. Schaaff-Gerstenschlaeger [3], P.H.M. Smits [5], T. Scarcez [17], N. Soriano [1], D. Tovan [11], M. Tzermia [2], A. Van Broekhoven [17], M. Vandenbol [7], D. H. Wedler [18], Von Wettstein [16], R. Wambutt [18], M. Zagulski $[7], A. Zollner [14] & L. Karpfinger [14]

The complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome X (745442 bp) reveals a total of 379 open reading frames (ORFs), the coding region covering ~75% of the entire sequence. One hundred and eighteen ORFs (31%) correspond to genes previously identified i n S. cerevisiae. All other ORFs represent novel putative yeast genes, whose function will have to be determined experimentally. However, 57 of the latter subset (another 15% of the total) encode proteins that show significant analogy to proteins of known function from yeast or other organisms. The remaining ORFs exhibiting no significant similarity to any known sequence, amount to 54% of the total. General features of chromosome X are also reported, with emphasis on the nucleotide frequency distribu tion in the environment of the ATG and stop codons, the possible coding capacity of at least some of the small ORFs (<100 codons) and the significance of 46 non-canonical or unpaired nucleotides in the stems of some of the 24 tRNA genes recognized on this chromosome.


[1] UPR 41 CNRS Recombinaisons Genetiques, Faculte de Medecine, avenue du Professeur Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex, France;

[2] Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Mole cular Biology and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion, GR-71110 Crete, Greece;

[3] Institut fuer Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 10, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany;

[4] Unite de Biochimie Physiologique, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2, Bte 20, B-1348 Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium;

[5] University of Amsterdam, Section for Molecular Biology, Kruislaan 318, NL-1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

[6] Genzentrum, Institut fuer Bi ochemie, Wuermtalstr. 221, D-81373 Muenchen, Germany;

[7] Unite de Microbiologie, Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, avenue Marechal Juin 6, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium;

[8] Institut fuer Mikrobiologie, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Marie-Curie-Str. 9, Geb. N250, D-60439 Frankfurt/Main, Germany;

[9] UPR 2420 CNRS Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Batiment 26, Avenue de la Terrasse, F-91198 Gif- sur-Yvette cedex, France;

[10] Institut fuer Mikrobiologie der Heinrich-Heine-Un iversitaet Duesseldorf, Geb. 26.12, Universitaetsstr. 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf, Germany;

[11] Genetique Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure, 46 rue d'Ulm, F-5230 Paris Cedex 05, France;

[12] Tumorvirologie Abt. 0610 and Virologie Appliquee de l'Oncologie Unite INSERM U375, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;

[13] Yeast Genetics, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, England;

[14] MIPS am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, D-82152 Martinsried bei Muenchen, Germany;

[15] GATC GmbH, Gesellschaft fuer Analyse Technik und Consulting, Fritz-Arnold-Str. 23, D-78467 Konstanz, Germany;

[16] Carlsberg Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Gamle Carlsberg vej 10, Valby, DK-2500 Copenhagen, Denmark;

[17] Innogenetics, Industriepark Zwijnaarde 7, box 4, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium;

[18] AGON GmbH, Gesellschaft fuer molekularbiologische Technologie mbH, Glienicker Weg 185, D-12489 Berlin, Germany;

$ P resent address: Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 5a Pawinskiego St., 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

* Present address: MediGene GmbH, Lochhamer Str. 11, D-82152 Martinsried

Acknowledgements: The Laboratory Consortium operating under contracts with the European Commission was initiated and organised by A. Goffeau. This study is part of the second phase of the European Yeast Genome Sequencing Project carried out under the administrative coordination of A. Vassarotti (DG-XII) and the Universite Catholique de Louvain, and under the scientific responsibility of F. Galibert, as DNA coordinator, and H. W. Mewes, as Informatics coordinator. We thank P. Mordant for accounting; G. Fobo and F. Pfeiffer for the preparation of the protein sequence database entries; P. Jordan, A. Maierl and C. Harris (MIPS) for support in computing.

Correspondence concerning the molecular biology of this work: F. Galibert
UPR 41 CNRS Recombinaisons Genetiques, Faculte de Medecine, avenue du Professeur Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex, France

Correspondence concerning the data and informatics of this work:

Hans Werner Mewes
Martinsried Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, 85152 Martinsried, Germany Telephone:+49 89 8578 2656 FAX +49 89 8578 2655

EMBL accession numbers: Z34098, Z49276-Z49662