Yeast - Reference Chromosome XVI


Nature 387 (suppl.) 103-105 (1997)


The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XVI


H. Bussey1, R.K. Storms2, A. Ahmed3, K. Albermann4, E. Allen5, W. Ansorge6, R. Araujo5, A. Aparicio5, B. Barrell7, K. Badcock7, V. Benes6, D. Botstein5, S. Bowman7, M. Brückner8, J. Carpenter5, J.M. Cherry5, E. Chung5, C. Churcher7, F. Coster9, K. Davis5, R.W. Davis5, F.S. Dietrich5, H. Delius10, T. DiPaolo1, E. Dubois11,12, A. Düsterhöft13, M. Duncan5, M. Floeth13, N. Fortin1, J.D. Friesen3, C. Fritz13, A. Goffeau9, J. Hall1, U. Hebling10, K. Heumann4, H. Hilbert13, L. Hillier14, other members of the Genome Sequencing Center14, S. Hunicke-Smith5, R. Hyman5, M. Johnston14, S. Kalman5, K. Kleine4, C. Komp5, O. Kurdi5, D. Lashkari5, H. Lew5, A. Lin5, D. Lin5, E.J. Louis15, R. Marathe5, F. Messenguy11, H.W. Mewes4, S. Mirtipati5, D. Moestl13, S. Müller-Auer8, A. Namath5, U. Nentwich6, P. Oefner5, D. Pearson7, F.X. Petel5, T.M. Pohl16, B. Purnelle9, M.A. Rajandream7, S. Rechmann6, M. Rieger8, L. Riles14, D. Roberts5, M. Schäfer8, M. Scharfe17, B. Scherens18,19, S. Schramm5, M. Schröder5, A. M. Sdicu1, H. Tettelin9, L.A. Urrestarazu20, S. Ushinsky2, F. Vierendeels11, S. Vissers18, H. Voss6, S.V. Walsh7, R. Wambutt17, Y. Wang1, R. Waterston14, E. Wedler17, H. Wedler17, R. Wilson14, E. Winnett1, W-W. Zhong1, A. Zollner4, D.H. Vo1* & J. Hani4*.


1 Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, H3A 1B1, Canada

2 Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montreal, H3G 1M8, Canada

3 Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada

4 Martinsrieder Institut für Protein Sequenzen, Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany

5 Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA

6 European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany

7 The Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK

8 Genotype GmbH, D-69259 Wilhelmsfeld, Germany

9 Unité de Biochimie Physiologique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

10 DKFZ, im Neuenheimer Feld 506, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany

11 Research Institute of CERIA-COOVI, B-1070, Brussels, Belgium

12 Laboratoire de Microbiologie de l’Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium

13 QIAGEN GmbH, Max-Volmer Strasse 4, D-40724 Hilden, Germany

14 Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA

15 Yeast Genetics, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK

16 Gesellschaft für Analyse Technik und Consulting mbH, Fritz-Arnold-Strasse 23, D-78467 Konstanz, Germany

17 AGON, Gesellschaft für molekularbiologische Technologie mbH, Glienicker Weg 185, D-12489 Berlin, Germany

18 Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biothechnologie, Department Microbiologie, B-1070, Brussels, Belgium

19 Laboratorium voor Erfelijkheidsleer en Microbiologie van de Vrije Universiteit, Brussels, Belgium

20 Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et de Génétique des Levures, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium

* These authors contributed equally to the work.


The nucleotide sequence of the 948,061 base pairs chromosome XVI has been determined, completing the sequence of the yeast genome. Chromosome XVI was the last yeast chromosome identified1, and some of the genes mapped early to it such as GAL4, PEP4 and RAD12 have played important roles in the development of yeast biology. The architecture of this final chromosome seems to be typical of the large yeast chromosomes, and shows large duplications with other yeast chromosomes. Chromosome XVI contains 487 potential protein-encoding genes, 17 tRNA genes and two small nuclear RNA genes; 27% of the genes have significant similarities to human gene products, and 48% are new and of unknown biological function. Systematic efforts to explore gene function have begun.


EMBL accession numbers: Z73521, Z73499-Z73638, U43703, U43503, U43281, U41849, U39205, U44030, U36624, U33335, Z48951, Z49919, Z49274, Z68111, Z49219, U51033, U32445, U40828, U40829, U28371, U25840, U25842, U25841, Z73537, Z73541