Yeast - The Yeast Sequencing Project


One of the milestones of genome research is the determination of the sequence of the whole genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Goal of this project was the sequencing of the entire nuclear genome of the commonly used laboratory strain S288C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The project got started in 1989 and finished in spring 1996. More than 100 laboratories from Europe, USA, Canada and Japan took part of the joined effort.

The contributing consortia to this project were:

complete chromosomes partial chromosomes
EU (Goffeau) II, III, VII, X, XI, XIV, XV IV, XII, XVI
St. Louis (Johnston) VIII IV, XVI
Sanger (Barrell) IX, XIII IV, XVI
McGill (Bussey) I XVI
Stanford (Davis) V IV
Riken (Murakami) VI -

CHROMOSOME DNA Coordinator Lenght (nucleotides) Release
I H. Bussey, Montreal 230,203 1995 (modif. 12-1997)
II H. Feldmann, Munich 813,139 8-1994 (modif. 11-1997)
III S. Oliver, Manchester 316613 12-1991 (modif. 7-2000)
IV (I) C. Jacq, Paris 1,531,929 12-2000
IV (II) B. Barrell, Cambridge
IV (III) M. Johnston, St. Louis
IV (IV) R. Davis, Stanford
V R. Davis, Stanford 576,869 1995 (modif. 7-2000)
VI Y. Murakami, Tokyo 270,148 1995 (modif. 3-1998)
VII H. Tettelin, Louvain 1,090,937 4-1996 (modif. 12-2000)
VIII M. Johnston, St. Louis 562,639 8-1994 (modif. 12-2000)
IX B. Barrell, Cambridge 439,885 1995 (modif. 12-2000)
X F. Gallibert, Rennes 745,444 10-1995 (modif. 06-2001)
XI B. Dujon, Paris 666,445 4-1994 (modif. 1-1998)
XII (left) J. Hoheisel, Heidelberg 1,078,173 4-1996 (modif. 7-1997)
XII (right) M. Johnston, St. Louis
XIII B. Barrell, Cambridge 924,430 1995 (modif. 12-2000)
XIV P. Philippsen, Basel 784,328 4-1996 (modif. 12-1996)
XV B. Dujon, Paris 1,091,284 11-1996 (modif. 11-1997)
XVI (I) A. Goffeau, Louvain 948,061 4-1996
XVI (II) H. Bussey, Montreal
XVI (IIa) R. Davis, Stanford
XVI (III) B. Barrell, Cambridge
XVI (IV) M. Johnston, St. Louis
F. Foury, Louvain 85,779 12-1998
TOTAL: 12,156,306 (with mitochondrial genome)
12,070,527 (without mitochondrial genome)

The yeast genome contains several regions with extensive repeated sequences. These repeats have not been sequenced in their entirety but at least two copies have been included in the final sequences.

Changes in the Yeast Genome since its Publication

Missing repeated sequences:

~ 100 copies of rDNA repeat (chrXII) each ~ 9,137 nt = 913,700 nt
2 copies of the ENA2 (chrIV) repeat ~ 3,885 nt = 7,770 nt
~ 10 copies of the CUP1 repeat (chrVIII) ~ 1,998 nt = 19,980 nt
~ 3-5 copies of Y' elements each ~ 6,700 nt
(chrIV telR 2-3 copies; chrXII telR 1-2 copies) = 26,800 nt

Total of missing repeated sequences

= 969,000 nt

The total genome of S.cerevisiae S288C therefore contains: 12,156,306 nt
+ 969,000 nt
= 13,125,306 nt

NOTE: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C lacks some genes found in brewery and other industrial strains such as the MEL, MAL and SUC gene families and maybe other yet unknown genes.