Table 4a. Yeast tRNA families and their genes

 

tRNA  

a)

Rel. abun-
dance of tRNA
tDNA anti-codon tRNA anti-codon 

b) 

 

Probable codon preferences c) Number of genes per tRNA species Total 
num. of genes  
for iso-
acceptors
Genes associ-
ated 
with a retro-
element
tRNA sequence determ.d 
previuosly 

d)

Gene sequence determined previuosly 

d)

Remarks
Ala1 Major

AGC

IGC GCU; GCC 11     RA6280 [A1, A2] DA6281 [A3]  
Ala2 Minor

TGC

U*GC GCA; GCG? 5     N.D. DA6280 [A4]  
Ala           16 13      
Arg1 Rare

CCT

CCU AGG 1       DR6282 [R2]  
Arg2 Major

ACG

ICG CGU; CGC; CGA? 6     RR6280 [R5] DR6280 [R4] 1 variant gene?
Arg3 

 

Major

TCT

mcm5UCU AGA 11     RR6281[R6] 
RR6282 variant tRNA?
DR6281 
[R3,R7,R8]
4 dimeric genes (Arg- Asp) [R7]. 
No gene for variant tRNA(Arg3)
Arg4 Rare

CCG

C*CG CGG 1     N.D.  N.D.  
Arg           19 12      
Asn Major

GTT

GUU AAU; AAC 10     RN6280 [N1] DN6280 [N2]  
Asn           10 7      
Asp Major

GTC

GUC GAU; GAC 16     RD6280 [D1] 
1variant tRNA 
N.D.
DD6280 [D2,D3] 
[D4,D5]
One gene non-functional. 
4 dimeric genes (Arg-Asp) [D2,D3]
Asp           16 12      
Cys Major

GCA

GCA UGU; UGC 4     RC6280 [C1] DC6280 [C2,C3]  
Cys           4 3      
Gln1 Major

TTG

U*UG CAA 7     N.D. DQ6280 [Q1,Q2]  
Gln1a Minor 

 

TTG

U*UG CAA 2     N.D. 

variant of tRNA(Gln1)

-- These are two variant genes of Gln1: 3 alternate bases in AC stem
Gln2 Rare

CTG

C*UG CAG 1     N.D. DQ6281[Q3,Q4] Essential gene, closely related to Gln1. 
Amber and ochre suppressors (SUP70) result 
from alternate ntdes. in the AC [Q5]
Gln           10 9      
Glu3 Major

TTC

mcm5s2UUC GAA 14     RE6280 [E1] DE6280[E2- E9,E11]  
Glu4 Minor

CTC

C*UC GAG 2     N.D. DE6281 [E10]  
Glu           16 12      
Gly1 Major

GCC

GCC GGU; GGC 16     RG6280 [G1] DG6280 [G3] 
DG6281 [G4, incorrect]  
[G2]
Modified DNA sequence in SUF17, SUF20 [G2]
Gly2 Minor

TCC

NCC GGA 3     RG6281[G2] [G2] Modified DNA sequence in SUF1, SUF4, SUF6 [G2]
Gly3 Minor

CCC

C*CC GGG 2     N.D. N.D. One variant gene. SUF3, SUF5 are variants in anticodon 
Gly           21 12      
His1         0     RH6280 [H1] -- tRNA variant. 
No gene in aS288C
His2 Major

GTG

GUG CAU; CAC 7     RH6281[H1] DH6280 H2,H4]  
His           7 5      
Ile1 Minor

TAT

U*AU AUA 2 (i)     N.D. DI6281[I1, Z1, Z3] One varinat gene?
Ile2 Major

AAT

IAU AUU; AUC 13     RI6280 [I1] DI6280 [I2]]  
Ile           15 8      
Leu1 Minor

TAG

UAG CUA; CUG?  

(CUU; CUC) 

(UUA; UUG)

3 (i)     RL6281 [L1] N.D. 1 variant intron
Leu3 Major

CAA

m5CAA UUG 10(i)     RL6280 [L5] DL6280[L3,L4,L6] 5 variant introns
Leu4 Major

TAA

NAA UUA; UUG 7     RL6282 [L2] DL6281 [L7 incorrect] 
DL6282 [L8]
 
Leu5 Rare

GAG

G*AG CUU; (CUC?) 1     N.D. N.D.  
Leu           21 14      
Lys1 Major

CTT

CUU AAG 14     RK6280[K2] DK6281 [K4] 2 variant genes ?
Lys2 Major

TTT

cmnm5UmUU AAA 7 (i)     RK6281 [K1] DK6280 [K3] 1 variant intron
Lys           21 11   [K4-K7]  
Meti-1 Major

CAT

CAU AUG 5     RX6280 [M1] DX6281 [M6]  
Meti-2  

CAT

CAU AUG       N.D. DX6280 [M2] questionable variant
Met3 Major

CAT

CAU AUG 5     RM6280 
[M3,M4]
DM6280 [M5] variant tRNA observed in other strain
Met           10 7      
Phe Major

GAA

GmAA UUU; UUC 8 (i)     RF6280 [F1] 
 
DF6280 [F2,F3] variant introns
Phe1a Minor

GAA

GmAA UUU; UUC 2 (i)     RF6281 [F4]  DF6281 [F3] Variant tRNA(Phe) (Acc.stem). 
Variant introns
Phe           10 4      
Pro1 Major

TGG

?UGG CCA; CCG? 10 (i)     RP6280; RP6281 
[P1,P2]
DP6280 [P2] One variant gene. 
SUF8: splice variant of Pro1: G39>U [P3]; 
5 genes with variant introns 
Pro2 Minor

AGG

prob. IGG CCU; CCC 2     N.D. N.D.  
Pro           12 10      
Ser1     IGA UCU; UCC       RS6281 [S1]   No gene in aS288C
Ser2 Major

AGA

IGA UCU; UCC 11     RS6282 [S1] DS6280 [S2- S5] 1 gene with seq. error
Ser3 Minor

GCT

G*CU AGU; AGC 4 (i)     [S7] DS6281 [S6] 2 genes with seq.error or variant AC loop
Ser4 Minor

TGA

?UGA UCA 3     RS6280 [S??] DS6283 [S10,S13,S??] SUQ5=SUP16 ochre, XVI; 
SUP17 ochre, IX 
SUP19 [S10]
Ser5 Rare

CGA

C*GA UCG 1 (i)     N.D. DS6282 [S8,S9, S10] 
DS6284 [Z1]
SUP-RL1 amber;  
SUP opal [S10]
Ser           19 8      
Thr1a Major

AGT

IGU ACU; ACC 11     RT6280 [T1] DT6280 [T2]  
Thr1b Variant

AGT

IGU ACU; ACC 0     RT6281 
[T1] 
variant tRNA
N.D. No gene in aS288C
Thr2 Rare

CGT

C*GU ACG 1     N.D. DT6281 [T3]  
Thr3 Minor

TGT

U*GU ACA 4     N.D. DT6282 [T4] 1 variant gene?
Thr           16 11      
Trp Major

CCA

CmCA UGG 6 (i)     RW6280 [W1]  DW6280 [W2-W4] Suppressor variant
Trp           6 4      
Tyr Major

GTA

GyA UAU; UAC 8 (i)     RY6280 [Y1] DY6280 [Y2] SUP4 
3 variant introns
Tyr           8 5      
Val1a Major

AAC

IAC GUU; GUC 13     RV6280 
[V1,V3]
DV6280 [V2]  
Val1b Rare 

AAC

IAC GUU; GUC 1     N.D. DV6281 [V6] Variant tRNA(Val1) gene 
Val2a Minor

TAC

ncm5UAC GUA 2     RV6281 [V5] N.D.  
Val2b Minor

CAC

CAC GUG 2     RV6282 [V4] N.D.  
Val           18 6      
All           275 163      

 

 

a) As far as possible, designation of the tRNA species follows those from the literature. For simplicity, isoaccepting tRNA species that have not been sequenced earlier or were predicted from the gene sequences have been numbered arbitrarily.

b) Nomenclature for modified bases is as in Steinberg et al. (1995). An asterisk indicates that this base has been deduced from the DNA sequence but that further information on whether this a modified or unmodified base is lacking because the corresponding tRNA has not been sequenced.

c) Exact in vivo codon recognitions have been experimentally determined in only a few cases. Largely, we follow the conventions proposed by Guthrie and Abelson, 1982.

d) Sequences and references RA6280 through DX6281 refer to those given in Steinberg et al. (1995). A list of full and/or further references to these is appended.

 

 

References to Table 1a

 

  Gramma-logue 
(R for RNA; 
D for DNA)
Reference 
as in Steinberg et al. (1995)
Full reference
A1 R-ala1   Holley, R.W. Apgar, J., Everett, G.A., Madison, J.T., Marquisee, M., Merrill, S.H., Penswick, J.R. and Zamir, A. (1966) Structure of a ribonucleic acid. Science 147, 1462-1465. 
A2 R-ala1 RA6280 Penswick, J.R. , Martin, R. and Dirheimer, G. (1975) Evidence supporting a revised sequence for yeast alanine tRNA. FEBS Letters 50, 28-31.
A3 D-ala2  DA6280 Drabkin, H.J. and RajBhandary, U.L. (1985) Attempted expression of a human initiator tRNA gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 5596-5602. Ala2
A4 D-ala2 DA6281 Creusot, F., Gaisne, M., Verdiere, J. and Slonimski, P.P. (1989) A novel tRNA(Ala) gene and its adjacent sigma element downstream from the CYP1 (HAP1) gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 17, 1865-1866.
C1 R-cys RC6280 Holness, N.J. and Atfield, G. (1976) The nucleotide sequence of cysteine tRNA from baker's yeast. Biochem. J. 153, 447-454.
C2 D-cys DC6280 Genbauffe, F.S., Chisholm, G.E. and Cooper, T.G. (1984) Tau, sigma, and delta. A family of repeated elements in yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 10518-10525. 
C3 D-cys   Stucka, R., Hauber, J. and Feldmann, H. (1986) Conserved and non-conserved features among the yeast Ty elements. Curr. Genet. 11, 193-200.
D1 R-asp RD6280 Gangloff, J., Keith, G., Ebel, J.P. and Dirheimer, G. (1972) The primary structure of aspartate tRNA from brewer' yeast. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 259, 210-222.
D2 D-asp   Gafner, J., DeRobertis, E.M. and Philippsen, P. (1983) Delta sequences in the 5' non-coding region of yeast tRNA genes. EMBO J. 2, 583-591. 
D3 D-asp   Schmidt, O., Mao, J., Ogden, R., Beckmann, J., Sakano, H., Abelson, J. and Söll, D. (1980) Dimeric tRNA precursors in yeast. Nature 287, 750-752.
D4   DD6280 Drabkin, H.J. and RajBhandary, U.L. (1985) Attempted expression of a human initiator tRNA gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 5596-5602.
D5   DD6280 Pavesi, A. et al. (1994) Identification of new eukaryotic tRNA genes in genomic DNA databases by a multistep weight matrix analysis of transcriptional control regions. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 1247-1256.
E1 R-glu3 RE6280 Kobayashi, T., Irie, T., Yoshida, M., Takeishi, K. and Ukita, T. (1974) The primary structure of yeast glutamic acid tRNA specific to the GAA codon. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 366, 168-181.
E2 D-glu3   Feldmann, H., Olah, J. and Friedenreich, H. (1981) Sequence of a yeast DNA fragment containing a chromosomal replicator and a tRNA(Glu3) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 9, 2949.
E3 D-glu3   Eigel, A., Olah, J. and Feldmann, H. (1981) Structural comparison of two yeast tRNA(Glu3) genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 9, 2961-2970.
E4 D-glu3 DE6280 Eigel, A. and Feldmann, H. (1982). Ty1 and delta elements occur adjacent to several tRNA genes in yeast. EMBO J. 1: 1245-1250 
E5 D-glu3 DE6280 Genbauffe, F.S., Chisholm, G.E. and Cooper, T.G. (1984) Tau, sigma, and delta. A family of repeated elements in yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 10518-10525. 
E6 D-glu3 

 

  Nelböck, P., Stucka, R. and Feldmann, H. (1985) Different patterns of transposable elements in the vicinity of tRNA genes in yeast: a possible clue to transcriptional modulation. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 366, 1041-1051. 
E7 D-glu3   Warmington, J.R., Anwar, R., Newlon, C.S., Waring, R.B., Davies, R.W., Indge, K.J.and Oliver, S.G. (1986) A 'hot-spot' for transposition on the left arm of yeast chromosome III. Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3475-3485. 
E8 D-glu3   Stucka, R., Hauber, J. and Feldmann, H. (1986) Conserved and non-conserved features among the yeast Ty elements. Curr. Genet. 11, 193-200.
E9 D-glu3   Hauber, J., Stucka, R., Krieg, R. and Feldmann, H. (1988). Analysis of yeast chromosomal regions carrying members of the glutamate tRNA gene family: various transposable elements are associated with them. Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10623-10634.
E10 D-glu4 DE6281 Stucka, R., Hauber, J. and Feldmann, H. (1987) One member of the tRNA(Glu) gene family in yeast codes for a minor GAG-tRNA(Glu) species and is associated with several short transposable elements. Curr. Genet. 12, 323-328.
E11   DE6280 Tucker, S.D., Murgola, E.J. (1985) Sequence analysis of the glyW region in Escherichia coli. Biochimie 67, 1053-1057.
F1 R-phe RF6280 Nielsen, P.E. and Leick, V. (1982) Specific photoreactions between psoralens and yeast-tRNAPhe. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 106, 179-185.
F2 D-phe DF6280 Valenzuela, P., Venegas, A., Weinberg, F., Bishop, R. and Rutter, W.J. (1978) Structure of yeast phenylalanine tRNA genes: an intervening DNA segment within the region coding for the tRNA. Biochemistry 75, 190-194.
F3 D-phe DF6281 Bull, P., Thorikay, M., Moenne, A., Wilkens, M., Sanchez, H., Valenzuela, P. and Venegas, A. (1987) The tRNA(Phe) gene family: structures and transcriptional activities reveal member differences not explained by intragenic promoters. DNA 6, 353-362.
F4   RF6281 Keith, G. and Dirheimer, G. (1987) Evidence for the existence of an expressed minor variant tRNAPhe in yeast. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 142, 183-187.
F5 D-phe   Stucka, R., Nelböck, P., Krieg, R. , Schwarzlose, C. and Feldmann, H. (1991) New genes for tRNA(Phe), tRNA(Leu), and tRNA(Thr) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 179.
G1 R-gly1 RG6280 Yoshida, M. (1973) The nucleotide sequence of tRNA(Gly) from yeast. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 50, 779-784.
G2 R-gly2 

D-gly2

RG6281 

 

Mendenhall, M.D., Leeds, P. Fen, H., Mathison, L., Zwick, M., Sleiziz, C. and Culbertson, M.R. (1987) Frameshift suppressor mutations affecting the major glycine transfer RNAs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Mol. Biol. 194, 41-58.
G3 D-gly1 DG6280 Drabkin, H.J. and RajBhandary, U.L. (1985) Attempted expression of a human initiator tRNA gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 5596-5602.
G4 D-gly2 DG6281 Heusden, G., Konig,W., van der Aart, Q. Berg, J. and Steensma, Y.H. (1993) The nucleotide sequence of a 2.1 kb fragment from chromosome VI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies a tRNA(Gly) gene, part of a delta element and a palindromic sequence. Yeast 9, 1107-110.
H1 R-his1 

R-his2

RH6280 

RH6281

Keith, G., Pixa, G., Fix, C. and Dirheimer, G. (1983) Primary structure of three tRNAs from brewer's yeast: tRNA(Pro2), tRNA(His1) and tRNA(His2). Biochimie 65, 661-672.
H2 D-his1   Del Rey, F.J., Donahue, T.F. and Fink, G.R. (1983) The histidine tRNA genes of yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 8175-8182.
H3 D-his1 DH6280 Del Rey, F.J., Donahue, T.F. and Fink, G.R. (1982) sigma, a repetitive element found adjacent to tRNA genes of yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 4138-4142.
H4 D-his 

 

  Lochmüller, H., Stucka, R. and Feldmann, H. (1989) A hot-spot for transposition of various Ty elements on chromosome V in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cur. Genet. 16, 247-232.
I1 R-ile2 

 

RI6280 Pixa, G., Dirheimer, G. and Keith, G. (1984) Sequence of tRNA(Ile; IAU) from brewer's yeast. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 119, 905-912.
I2 D-ile2 DI6280 Felici, F. and Cesarini, G. (1987) Structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding tRNA(Ile;IAU). Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 364.
I4 D-ile2 ? 

 

  Lochmüller, H., Stucka, R. and Feldmann, H. (1989) A hot-spot for transposition of various Ty elements on chromosome V in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cur. Genet. 16, 247-232.
K1 R-lys2 RK6281 Madison, J.T. and Bogulawski, S.J. (1974) Partial digestion of yeast lysine tRNA and reconstruction of the nucleotides sequence. Biochemistry 13, 524-527.
K2 R-lys1 

R-lys2

RK6280 Smith, C.J., Teh, H.S., Ley, A.N. and D'Obrenan, P. (1973) The nucleotide sequences and coding properties of the major and minor lysine transfer ribonucleic acids from the haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae aS288C. J. Biol. Chem. 248, 4475-4485.
K3 D-lys2 DK6280 Del Rey, F.J., Donahue, T.F. and Fink, G.R. (1982) Sigma, a repetitive element found adjacent to tRNA genes of yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 4138-4142.
K4 D-lys1 

 

DK6281 Nelböck, P., Stucka, R. and Feldmann, H. (1985) Different patterns of transposable elements in the vicinity of tRNA genes in yeast: a possible clue to transcritional modulation. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 366, 1041-1051. 
K5 D-lys1   Hauber, J., Nelböck, P. and Feldmann, H. (1985) Nucleotide sequence and characteristics of a Ty1 element from yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 2745-2755.
K6 D-lys ??   Warmington, J.R., Green, R., Newlon, S. and Oliver, S.G. (1987) Polymorphisms on the right arm of yeast chromosome III associated with Ty transposition and recombinant events. Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 8963-8982.
K7 D-lys1 

 

  Lochmüller, H., Stucka, R. and Feldmann, H. (1989) A hot-spot for transposition of various Ty elements on chromosome V in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cur. Genet. 16, 247-232.
L1 R-leu1 RL6281 Randerath, E., Gupta, R.C., Chia, L.S.Y., Chang, S.H. and Randerath, K. (1979) Yeast tRNA(Leu, UAG). Purification, properties and determination of the nucleotide sequence by radioactive derivative methods. Eur. J. Biochem. 93, 79-94. 
L2 R-leu4 RL6282 El-Adlouni, C., Desgres, J., Dirheimer, G. and Keith, G. (1991) Sequence of a new tRNA(Leu;U*AA) from brewer's yeast. Biochimie 73, 1355-1360.
L3 D-leu3 DL6280 Warmington, J.R., Anwar, R., Newlon, C.S., Waring, R.B., Davies, R.W., Indge, K.J.and Oliver, S.G. (1986) A 'hot-spot' for transposition on the left arm of yeast chromosome III. Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3475-3485. 
L4 DP-leu3   Standring, D.N., Venegas, A. and Rutter, W.J. (1981) Yeast tRNA(Leu3) gene is transcribed and spliced in HeLa cell extract. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5963-5967.
L5 R-leu3 RL6280 Chang, S.H., Kuo, S., Hawkins, E. and Miller, N.R. (1973) The corrected nucleotide sequence of yeast leucine tRNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 51, 951-955.
L6 D-leu3   Andreadis, A., Hsu, Y.-P., Kohlhaw, G.B. and Schimmel, P. (1982) Nucleotide sequence of yeast LEU2 shows 5'-noncoding region has sequences cognate to leucine. Cell 31, 319-325.
L7 D-leu4 DL6281 Stucka, R., Nelböck, P., Krieg, R. , Schwarzlose, C. and Feldmann, H. (1991) New genes for tRNA(Phe), tRNA(Leu), and tRNA(Thr) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 179.
M1 R-met1 RX6280 Simsek, M. and RajBhandary, V.L. (1972) The primary structure of yeast initiator tRNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 508-515.
M1a   RX6280 Beauchemin, N., Paquette, J. and Cedergren, R. (1987) Site-directed protection of RNA during nuclease digestion. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 65, 43-49
M1b   RX6280 Desgres, J. Keith, G., Kuo, K.C. and Gehrke, C.W. (1989) Presence of phosphorylated O-ribosyl-adenosine in T-psi-stem of yeast methionine initiator tRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 17, 865-882.
M2 D-meti DX6280 Venegas, A., Gonzalez, E., Bull, P. and Valenzuela, P. (1982) Isolation and structure of a yeast initiator tRNA(Met) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 10, 1093-1096.
M3 R-met3 RM6280 Gruhl, H. and Feldmann, H. (1976) The primary structure of a non-initiating methionine-specific tRNA from brewer's yeast. Eur. J. Biochem. 68, 209-217.
M4 R-met3 RM6280 Koiwai, O. and Miyazaki, M. (1976) The primary structure of non-initiator methionine tRNA from baker's yeast. J. Biochem. 80, 951-959.
M5 D-met3 DM6280 Olah, J. and Feldmann, H. (1980) Structure of a yeast non-initiating methionine tRNA gene. Nucleic Acvids Res. 8, 1975-1986.
M6 D-meti DX6281 Cigan, A.M. and Donahue, T.F. (1986) The methionine initiator tRNA genes of yeast. Gene 41, 343-348.
N1 R-asn RN6280 Keith, G. and Pixa, G. (1984) The nucleotide sequence of asparagine tRNA from brewer's yeast. Biochimie 66, 639-643.
N2 D-asn DN6280 Biteau, N., Fremaux, C., Hebrard, S., Aigle, M. and Crouzet, M. (1991) Sequence of tRNA(Asn) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 2778.
P1 R-pro1 

 

RP6280 Keith, G., Pixa, G., Fix, C. and Dirheimer, G. (1983) Primary structure of three tRNAs from brewer's yeast: tRNA(Pro2), tRNA(His1) and tRNA(His2). Biochimie 65, 661-672.
P2 P-suf8-1 DP6280 Winey, M., Mendenhall, M.D., Cummins, C.M., Culbertson, M.R. and G. Knapp (1986) Splicing of a proline tRNA containing a novel suppressor mutation in the anticodon stem. J. Mol. Biol. 192, 49-63.
P3 R-pro1 RP6281 Winey, M., Mendenhall, M.D., Cummins, C.M., Culbertson, M.R. and G. Knapp (1986) Splicing of a proline tRNA containing a novel suppressor mutation in the anticodon stem. J. Mol. Biol. 192, 49-63.
Q1 D-gln DQ6280 Tschumper, G. and Carbon, C. (1982) Delta sequences and double symmetry in a yeast chromosomal replicator region. J. Mol. Biol. 156, 293-307.
Q2 D-gln   Nelböck, P., Stucka, R. and Feldmann, H. (1985) Different patterns of transposable elements in the vicinity of tRNA genes in yeast: a possible clue to transcriptional modulation. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 366, 1041-1051. 
Q3 D-gln2 DQ6281 Lin, J.P., Aker, M. Sitney, K.C. and Mortimer, R.K. (1986) First position wobble in codon-anticodon pairing: amber suppression by a yeast glutamine tRNA. Gene 49, 383-388.
Q4 D-gln2 DQ6281 Weiss, W.A. and Friedberg, E.C. (1986) Normal yeast tRNA(Gln,CAG) can suppress amber codons and is encoded by an essential gene. J. Mol. Biol. 192, 725-735.
Q5 D-gln2 sup   Edelman, I. and Culbertson, M.R. (1991) Exceptional codon recognition by the glutamine tRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 10, 1481-1491.
R1 R-arg1  RR6282 Keith, G. and and Dirheimer, G. (1980) Reinvestigation of the primary structure of brewer's yeast tRNA 3 Arg. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 92, 116-119
R2 D-arg1 DR6282 Gafner, J., DeRobertis, E.M. and Philippsen, P. (1983) Delta sequences in the 5' non-coding region of yeast tRNA genes. EMBO J. 2, 583-591. 
R3 D-arg2 DR6281 Villanueva, J., Bull, P., Valenzuela, P. and Venegas, A. (1984) Nucleotide sequence of a yeast tRNA(Arg3A) gene and its transcription in a homologous in vitro system. FEBS Letters 167, 165-169.
R4 D-arg2 DR6280 Baker, R.E., Eigel, A., Vögtel, D. and Feldmann. H. (1982) Nucleotide sequences of yeast for tRNA(Ser2), tRNA(Arg2) and tRNA(Val1): homology blocks occur in the vicinity of different tRNA genes. EMBO J. 1, 291-295.
R5 R-arg3 RR6280 Weissenbach, J., Martin, R., and Dirheimer, G. (1975) The primary structure of tRNA(ArgII) from brewer's yeast. Eur. J. Biochem. 56, 527-532.
R6 R-arg3 RR6281 Keith, G. and Dirheimer, G. (1980) Reinvestigation of the primary structure of brewer's yeast tRNA(Arg3). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 92, 116-119.
R7 D-arg3a DR6281 Schmidt, O., Mao, J., Ogden, R., Beckmann, J., Sakano, H., Abelson, J. and Söll, D. (1980) Dimeric tRNA precursors in yeast. Nature 287, 750-752.
R8 D-arg3a DR6281 Thireos, G., Penn, M.D. and Greer, H. (1984) 5' untranslated sequences are required for the translational control of a yeast regulatory gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 5096-5100. 
S1 R-ser1 

R-ser2

RS6281 

RS6282

Zachau, H.G., Dütting, D. and Feldmann, H. (1966) The structures of two serine transfer ribonucleic acids. Hoppe-Seyler 347, 212-235.
S2 D-ser2 DS6280 Page, G.S. and Hall, B.D. (1981) Characterization of the yeast tRNA(Ser2) family: genomic organisation and DNA sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 9, 921-934.
S3 D-ser2   Eigel, A. and Feldmann, H. (1982). Ty1 and delta elements occur adjacent to several tRNA genes in yeast. EMBO J. 1: 1245-1250 
S4 D-ser2 

 

DS6280 Baker, R.E., Eigel, A., Vögtel, D. and Feldmann. H. (1982) Nucleotide sequences of yeast for tRNA(Ser2), tRNA(Arg2) and tRNA(Val1): homology blocks occur in the vicinity of different tRNA genes. EMBO J. 1, 291-295.
S5 D-ser2 

 

  Nelböck, P., Stucka, R. and Feldmann, H. (1985) Different patterns of transposable elements in the vicinity of tRNA genes in yeast: a possible clue to transcritional modulation. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 366, 1041-1051. 
S6 D-ser3 DS6281 Stucka, R. and Feldmann, H. (1988) Structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a minor AGY- tRNA(Ser). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 3583.
S7 R-Ser3   Heyman, T., Agoutin, B., Fix, C., Dirheimer, G. and Keith, G. (1994) Yeast serine isoacceptor tRNAs: variations of their content as a function of growth conditions and primary structure of the minor tRNA(Ser)GCU. FEBS Lett. 347, 143-146.
S8 D-ser4 sup   Etcheverry, T., Colby, D. and Guthrie, C. (1979) Cell 18, 11-26.
S9 D-ser4 sup   Piper, P.W. (1978) A correlation between a recessive lethal amber suppressor mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an anticodon change in a minor serine transfer RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 122, 217-235.
S10 D-ser4 sup 

D-ser5 sup

DS6282 

DS6283

Olson, M.V., Page, G.S., Sentenac, A., Piper, P.W., Worthington, M. Weiss, R.B. and Hall, B.D. (1981) Only one of two closely related yeast suppressor tRNA genes contains an intervening sequence. Nature 291, 464-469.
S11 D-ser5 sup   Brandriss, M.C., Stewart, J.W., Sherman, F. and Botstein, D. (1976). Substitution of serine caused by a recessive lethal suppressor in yeast. J. Mol. Biol. 102, 467-476.
S12 D-ser5 sup   Etchevery, T., Colby, D. and Guthrie, C. (1979) Gene 8, 121-133.
S13 D-ser5 sup DS6283 Broach, J.R., Friedman, L. and Sherman, F. (1981) Correspondence of yeast UAA suppressors to cloned tRNA(Ser; UCA) genes. J. Mol. Biol. 150, 375-385.
S14   DS6283 Sandmeyer, S.B. and Olson, M.V. (1982) Insertion of a repetitive element at the same position in the 5'-flanking regions of two dissimilar yeast tRNA genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 80, 3292-3296
T1 R-thr1a 

R-thr1b

RT6280 

RT6281

Weissenbach, J., Kiraly, I. and Dirheimer, G. (1977) Primary structures of tRNA(Thr1a) and tRNA(Thr1b) from brewer's yeast. Biochimie 59, 381-391.
T2 D-thr1a 

 

DT6280 

 

Stucka, R., Nelböck, P., Krieg, R. , Schwarzlose, C. and Feldmann, H. (1991) New genes for tRNA(Phe), tRNA(Leu), and tRNA(Thr) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 179.
T3 D-thr2 DT6281 Stucka, R., Nelböck, P., Krieg, R. , Schwarzlose, C. and Feldmann, H. (1991) New genes for tRNA(Phe), tRNA(Leu), and tRNA(Thr) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 179.
T4 D-thr3 DT6282 Johnston, M. et al. (1994) Complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. Science 265, 2077-2082.
V1 R-val1a RV6280 Bayev, A.A., Venkstern, T.V., Mirzabekov, A.D., Krutilina, A.I., Li, L. and Axelrod, V.D. (1967) Molek. Biol., SSSR, 1, 754-766.
V2 D-val1a DV6280 Baker, R.E., Eigel, A., Vögtel, D. and Feldmann. H. (1982) Nucleotide sequences of yeast for tRNA(Ser2), tRNA(Arg2) and tRNA(Val1): homology blocks occur in the vicinity of different tRNA genes. EMBO J. 1, 291-295.
V3 R-val1a RV6280 Bonnet, J., Ebel, J.P., Dirheimer, G., Shernyaeva, L.P. Krutilina, A.I., Venkstern, T.V. and Bayev, A.A. (1974) The corrected nucleotide sequence of valine tRNA from baker's yeast. Biochimie 56, 1211-1213.
V4 R-val2a RV6282 Axel'rod, V.D., Kryukov, V.M., Isaenko, S.N. and Bayev, A.A. (1974) Nucleotide sequence in tRNA(Val2a) from baker's yeast. FEBS Letters 45, 333-336.
V5 R-val2b RV6282 Gorbulev, V.G., Axel'rod, V.D. and Bayev, A.A. (1977) Primary structure of baker's yeast tRNA(Val2b). Nucleic Acids Res. 4, 3239-3258.
V6 D-val1b DV6281 Gokhman, I. and Zamir, A. (1990) The nucleotide sequence of the ferrochelatase and tRNA(Val) gene region from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic. Acids Res. 18, 6130.
W1 R-trp RW6280 Keith, G., Roy, A. Ebel, J.P. and Dirheimer, G. (1972) The primary structure of tryptophan tRNA from brewer's yeast. Biochimie 54, 1417-1426.
W2 R-trp-sup DW6280 Kim, D. and Johnson, J. (1988) Construction, expression, and function of a new yeast amber suppressor tRNA(TrpA*). J. Biol. Chem. 263, 7316-7321.
W3 P-trp   Ogden, R.C., Beckmann, J.S., Abelson, J.N. and Kang, H.S. (1979) In vitro transcription and processing of a yeast tRNA gene containing an intervening sequence. Cell 17, 399-406.
W4 D-trp   Van Arsdell, S.W., Stetler, G.L. and Thorner, J. (1987) The yeast repeated element sigma contains a hormone-inducible promoter.. Mol. Cell. Biol. 7, 749-759
Y1 R-tyr RY6280 Madison, J.T. and Kung, H.-K. (1967) Large oligonucleotides isolated from yeast tyrosine tRNA after partial digestion with Rnase T1. J. Biol. Chem. 242, 1324-1330. 
Y2 D-tyr 

SUP4-o

DY6280 Goodman, H.M., Olson, M.V. and Hall, B.D. (1977) Nucleotide sequence of a mutant eukaryotic gene: the yeast tyrosine-inserting ochre suppressor SUP4-o. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 5453-5457.
Z1 P-phe, P-tyr,P-leu3,  
P-trp, 
P-ser(UCG)
  Ogden, R.C., Knapp, G., Peebles, C.L., Kang, H.S., Beckmann, J.S., Johnson, P.F., Fuhrmann, S.A. and Abelson, J.N. (1980) Enzymatic removal of intervening sequences in the synthesis of yeast tRNAs, in: Transfer RNA (Söll, D., Abelson, J. and Schimmel, P., eds.) Cold Spring Harbor Sympos. Quant. Biol., pp. 173-190.
Z2 P-ile1 
P-leu3
DI6281 Peebles, C.L., Gegenheimer,P. and Abelson, J. (1983) Precise excision of intervening sequences from precursor tRNAs by a membrane-associated yeast endonuclease. Cell 32, 525-536.
Z3 P-ile, P-leu, P-lys, P-phe, 
P-pro,  
P-ser, 
P-trp, P-tyr
  

  

DS6284

Ogden, R.C., Lee, M.-C. and Knapp, G. (1984) Transfer RNA splicing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: defining the substrates. Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 9367-9382.